This topic lists all concepts for each topic and theme. You should, by the end of your study, be able to qualitatively, and quantitatively where appropriate, describe each topic, theme and concept. Think about question words who, what, where, why, how, when; can you adequately answer these questions for each concept?
Geological Time: Geology, Homo sapiens, periods and eras in the Earth’s history, geologic science, sedimentary rock, radiometric dating.
Plate Tectonics and East Asia: Geological history, molten interior of the earth, plate tectonics, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, climate disruption, Pacific Ring of Fire, seismic activity, Japan, Philippines, San Francisco, Gondwanaland, subduction, Tibet, Southeast Asia.
Sea Change: Sea level change, ice-volume changes, hydrological cycle, Orbital variations, flora and fauna, glacial maximum.
Climate and Vegetation Change: Climate, northern-hemisphere ice sheets, shallow and warm sea, monsoons, glacial cycle, solar radiation, glacial maximum.
E.T. and Catastrophe: Asteroid, Chicxulub, global extinction of the dinosaurs.
Ranges and Volcanoes: Alpide belt, Himalayas, Pacific Ring of Fire, Sunda volcanic arc, Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, Tambora, Krakatau, Agung, Pinatubo, Megathrust sites, subducts.
Malaysian Topography: Malay Peninsula, Nakawan, Granite, quartzite, granite, Penang Island, Bintang, Gunung Bintang, Kledang Range, phyllite, Pahang, Selangor, phyllite, Gunung Korbu, limestone, sandstones, granites, Sunda Shelf, Miri Zone, miogeosynclinal, molasse strata, Sibu Zone, eugeosynclinal flysch, Kuching Zone, West Borneo Basement, Cretaceous volcanic and plutonic rocks, Karst, downward percolating meteoric water, Batu Caves, Bukit Anak Takun.
Orang Asli: Orang Asli, Dayak, Penan of Sarawak, Rungus of Sabah, Proto-Malay, Melayu asli, Deutero-Malays, Arabia, China, India, Siam, Thailand, nomadic, Malacca Strait, Sumatra based Malays, Orang Asli, Bumiputera.
Faith, Trade and Settlement: World trade system in the Mediterranean, Mughal Empire, Bay of Bengal, entrepôts, Malacca, sultanate, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, Sultan, Temenggong, Burma, Siam, Burney and Low treaties, Suez Canal, )., Perak, Residential System in Malaysia, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, Perak, Pahang, Federation of Malaya, Siam, Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu, Perlis, 1909 Bangkok Treaty, Stamford Raffles, British East India Company, Malacca, Penang, Singapore, protectorates, Bay of Bengal, Straits Settlements, British East India Company, Viceroy in India, Crown Colony, Singapore.
British Colonialism: Malay Peninsula, opium, Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, Malacca, Napoleonic Wars, Straits Settlements,, East Indies, mercantilist’, imperialist’, democracy, British imperialist intervention, Malay Archipelago, Triad, Machu dynasty, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur.
Immigration & Economy: Slavery, rubber plantations, Great Depression.
War and Peace: World Wars, Pearl Harbour, The Axis Powers, Social fragmentation, nationalism, Second World War, Economic protectionism, open economy.
Emergency and Independence
Ethnicity, Religion and Resources: Natural environments, Sunni Muslim, Catholic, Buddhist, Protestant, Christian, Hindu, Bumiputera, Chinese, Indian, Selangor, Johor, Sabah, Sarawak, Perak, Mandarin, Tamil, Cantonese, English, dialects, Islam, cultural landscape of Malaysia, Mecca, Medina, Arabia, Muhammad, Allah’s prophet, Jesus Christ, Qur’an, Five Pillars of Islam, Iman, Salah, Zakah, Sadaqah, Sawm, Hajj, Mecca, Islamic calendar, Muslims, orthodox Sunni, doctrine, Shia, natural resources, Buddhism, Four Noble Truths, Dukkha, Samudāya, Nirodha, Magga, The Eightfold Path, meditation, Buddha's, Christianity, imperialist expansion, Jesus Christ, Bible, Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, colonisation, Philippines, Timor-Leste, Hinduism, Indus Valley, polytheistic, worship, Veda, Dhama, Karma.
Tin: Kinta and Klang Valleys, metallogenic tin province, food canning, tin rush, dredging, gravel-pumping, Straits Trading Company, Muhlinghaus, export commodity, ethnic Malays, Tin depostis in Malaysia, ore, cassiterite, cassiterite, Chinese Lombong, hydraulic mining, gravel pump mining, bucket ladder dredging (, alluvial deposits, sluicing, smelting, Straits Trading Company Ltd, Eastern Smelting Company Ltd, Penang, tin dredge,, price manipulation, market collapse in 1981.
Limestone and Granite Mining: Limestone, calcium carbonate, calcite, dolomite, marble, Marine limestone, Perak, Pahang, Kelantan, Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Granite, igneous rock, magma, Quarrying, open-cast mines, Pan Borneo Highway.
Bauxite and Other Minerals: Antimony, bauxite, ilmenite, limestone, rare earths, tin, liquefied natural gas, bauxite, copper, crude petroleum.
Fossil Fuel Energy: International crises of 1973 and 1979, four fuel diversification strategy, oil usage in Malaysia: Coal: Coal resources in Malaysia, Sarawak, Sabah.
Oil and Gas: anaerobic decay, oil and natural gas, liquefied natural gas, PETRONAS, resource curse, the paradox of plenty: .
Introduction: East Malaysia, maritime systems.
Soil and Industrial Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia, lithosols, latisols, intensive agricultural development, South China Sea, Sarawak, Sabah, Borneo, acid sulphate soils, monocropping in Malaysia, Soil fertility, monocropping, natural system, permaculture, diversity, soil change, Biological complexity, agroindustry, Agricultural policies, smallholdings, genetic modification.
Rice: Kedah, Langkawi, rice production, rice cultivation in Malaysia, environmental instability, Rice pests: Cocoa: cultivation of cocoa, agribusiness, value chain of cocoa.
Coconut: Coconut, industrial crop, biodiesel.
Palm Oil: Elaeis guineensis, Palm oil plantations, Palm oil, refined palm oil, commodities, world vegetable oil market, Dying for a Biscuit, global demand for palm oil, European Union mandate, renewable sources, biofuels, thermochemical conversion, liquefaction, greenhouse gas emissions, land use, forestry, biodiversity, soil and water, food versus fuel, smallholder production, land ownership, sustainability, insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, Oil palm, soil acidity, commercial cropping in Malaysia, mycorrhizal fungi, indigenous people and animals, forestry practices, indigenous-tree species, Honduras, Indonesia, environmental degradation.
Permaculture and Food Security: State regulation, industrial governance, ethnic inequality, rubber exploitation, steel, cement, paper, petro-chemicals, mixed farming, economies of scale, permaculture.
Global Action Plan for Agricultural Diversification (GAPAD): Emissions pathway, maize, wheat, rice, soybean, unpredictable environmental conditions, diversify, monoculture paradigm, mass migration
Introduction: The Tragedy of the Commons, sustainable forest management, poverty, agricultural practices, corruption, socio-economic processes, forestry, sustainability, gross domestic product, development.
Natural Forests in Malaysia: Dipterocarp forest, oak-laurel forest, ericaceous forest, mangrove forests, peat swamp forests, inland forests, Sabah, Sarawak, forests in Malaysia.
Rubber: Ceylon, Sri Lanka, Bee Hawk Moth, rubber plant, pneumatic tyres, vulcanization, Singapore Botanic Gardens, Rubber Ridley’, natural rubber.
Forest Resources and Livelihoods: Sustainable living, indigenous populations, Orang Asli, unbalanced biodiversity, hunting, fishing, harvesting of non-timber forest products, land use, livelihoods, rattan, honey, bamboo, forest fruits, Rafflesia buds, stocks of fish, terrestrial animals, in balance with nature, monocrop agriculture, economic growth, technocratic economic planning.
Forest Systems and Management: Deforestation in Malaysia, cosmetics, processed foods, World War II, deforestation, good governance, tree species genetic variability, adaptable, forests in Malaysia remain.
Timber: Chemical complexity of forested areas, Commercial logging, quantifiable level of sustainability.
Timber and Palm Synergy: Land Grabbing, Indonesia, Kalimantan.
Introduction: Megadiverse countries, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, flowering plants, marine fish, freshwater fish, orchids, palms, fungi, mosses, Deforestation, biodiversity.
Malaysian Reserves: Reserves, High Conversation Value Forest.
Land Flora of Malaysia: Florally diverse countries, Rafflesiaceae, Sir Thomas Raffles, critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable, elephants, forest gardeners, ecosystem.
Land Fauna of Malaysia: Malaysian fauna, orangutan, threatened mammal species, megafauna, tourist income, rhinos, elephants, tigers,, herbivorous animals, primary forest, logged forest, species richness, forest birds, butterflies, palm oil expansion in Malaysia, environmental policy.
Environmental Policy and Law of Malaysia: Environmental policy in Malaysia, environmental degradation, resource exploitation, Federal policy, Sustainable development, conservation, civil-society environmentalism, environmental impact assessments, natural resources, soil and water conservation, minerals, forests, wildlife, national parks, natural resource policy, The National Forestry Policy 1978, National Policy on Biological Diversity 1998, National Policy on the Environment 2002, National Wetlands Policy 2004, National Biotechnology Policy 2005, United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, National Policy on Biological Diversity, PRF, PFE, forest and tree cover, agricultural production systems.
Sustainability & Policy Impact: Livelihoods, Heterogeneity,, legislative weakness, ambiguity, commerce, Forest Management Certification, environmental degradation, soil fertility, water quality, biomass, degraded agricultural lands, peat lands, biofuel carbon debt, carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas reductions, biofuels, fossil fuels, global goals, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.